*                                       *
              *  ATTRIBUTE SET BIB-1 (Z39.50-1995):   *
              *             SEMANTICS                 *
              *                                       *

                           September 1995


A Use attribute specifies an access point (e.g., corporate name, personal
name, title, subject).

The Use attributes are given below in two separate tables.  Table 1 is
similar to the listing in Z39.50-1995, Appendix 3, ATR: Attribute Sets,
in that the attributes are in order by their values and the same names
that appear in the Appendix appear in the left column of Table 1.  The
right column of Table 1 contains a reference to the name of the
attribute that is used in Table 2.  Table 2 rearranges the Use
attributes alphabetically by group name in an attempt to bring
similar Use attributes together.  The groups are somewhat arbitrary;
no rigorous classification of the attributes has been attempted.

In Table 2, all attribute names are followed by their values, a brief
definition or description, and tag values of representative USMARC
bibliographic format fields that would contain data that could be
described in the search by using the attribute.  Whenever possible,
definitions are taken from the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules or the
USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data as these are the guidelines that
are used by a significant number of libraries for formulating data.  In
Table 2, the notation '$<alpha>' following a USMARC tag refers to a
subfield of the named field.  The notation 'i<number>' following a
USMARC tag refers to values of the second indicator in the named
field; when the second indicator of the field has the value
<number>, the data in the field is associated with that Use


Use                          Value    Reference to Group Name Used in Table 2
---------------------------  -----    ---------------------------------------
Personal name                  1      Name-personal
Corporate name                 2      Name-corporate
Conference name                3      Name-conference
Title                          4      Title
Title series                   5      Title-series
Title uniform                  6      Title-uniform
ISBN                           7      Identifier-ISBN
ISSN                           8      Identifier-ISSN
LC card number                 9      Control number-LC
BNB card number                10     Control number-BNB
BGF(sic) number                11     Control number-BNF
Local number                   12     Control number-local
Dewey classification           13     Classification-Dewey
UDC classification             14     Classification-UDC
Bliss classification           15     Classification-Bliss
LC call number                 16     Classification-LC
NLM call number                17     Classification-NLM
NAL call number                18     Classification-NAL
MOS call number                19     Classification-MOS
Local classification           20     Classification-local
Subject heading                21     Subject
Subject Rameau                 22     Subject-RAMEAU
BDI index subject              23     Subject-BDI
INSPEC subject                 24     Subject-INSPEC
MESH subject                   25     Subject-MESH
PA subject                     26     Subject-PA
LC subject heading             27     Subject-LC
RVM subject heading            28     Subject-RVM
Local subject index            29     Subject-local
Date                           30     Date
Date of publication            31     Date-publication
Date of acquisition            32     Date-acquisition
Title-key                      33     Title-key
Title collective               34     Title-collective
Title parallel                 35     Title-parallel
Title cover                    36     Title-cover
Title added-title-page         37     Title-added-title-page
Title caption                  38     Title-caption
Title running                  39     Title-running
Title spine                    40     Title-spine
Title other variant            41     Title-other-variant
Title former                   42     Title-former
Title abbreviated              43     Title-abbreviated
Title expanded                 44     Title-expanded
Subject PRECIS                 45     Subject-PRECIS
Subject RSWK                   46     Subject-RSWK
Subject subdivision            47     Subject-subdivision
Number natl bibliography       48     Identifier-national-bibliography
Number legal deposit           49     Identifier-legal-deposit
Number govt publication        50     Classification-government-publication
Number publisher for music     51     Identifier-publisher-for-music
Number DB                      52     Control-number-DB
Number local call              53     Identifier-local-call
Code--language                 54     Code-language
Code--geographic area          55     Code-geographic-area
Code--institution              56     Code-institution
Name and title                 57     Name and title
Name geographic                58     Name-geographic
Place publication              59     Name-geographic-place-publication
CODEN                          60     Identifier-CODEN
Microform generation           61     Code-microform-generation
Abstract                       62     Abstract
Note                           63     Note
Author-title                 1000     Author-name-and-title
Record type                  1001     Code-record-type
Name                         1002     Name
Author                       1003     Author-name
Author-name personal         1004     Author-name-personal
Author-name corporate        1005     Author-name-corporate
Author-name conference       1006     Author-name-conference
Identifier--standard         1007     Identifier-standard
Subject--LC children's       1008     Subject-LC-children's
Subject name--personal       1009     Subject-name-personal
Body of text                 1010     Body of text
Date/time added to database  1011     Date/time added to database
Date/time last modified      1012     Date/time last modified
Authority/format identifier  1013     Identifier-authority/format
Concept-text                 1014     Concept-text
Concept-reference            1015     Concept-reference
Any                          1016     Any
Server choice                1017     Server-choice
Publisher                    1018     Name-publisher
Record source                1019     Record-source
Editor                       1020     Name-editor
Bib-level                    1021     Code-bib-level
Geographic class             1022     Code-geographic-class
Indexed by                   1023     Indexed-by
Map scale                    1024     Code-map-scale
Music key                    1025     Music-key
Related periodical           1026     Title-related-periodical
Report number                1027     Identifier-report
Stock number                 1028     Identifier-stock
Thematic number              1030     Identifier-thematic
Material type                1031     Material-type
Doc ID                       1032     Identifier-document
Host item                    1033     Title-host-item
Content type                 1034     Content-type
Anywhere                     1035     Anywhere
Author-Title-Subject         1036     Author-Title-Subject


Use                  Value Definition                      USMARC tag(s)
-------------------- ----- ------------------------------  ------------------
Abstract               62  An abbreviated, accurate        520
                           representation of a work,
                           usually without added
                           interpretation or criticism.

Any                  1016  The record is selected if there
                           exists a Use attribute that the
                           target supports (and considers
                           appropriate - see note 1) such
                           that the record would be
                           selected if the target were to
                           substitute that attribute.
        (1) When the origin uses 'any' the intent is that the target
            locate records via commonly used access points. The target
            may define 'any' to refer to a selected set of Use
            attributes corresponding to its commonly used access points.
        (2) In set terminology: when Any is the Use attribute, the set
            of records selected is the union of the sets of records
            selected by each of the (appropriate) Use attributes that
            the target supports.

Anywhere             1035  The record is selected if the
                           term value (as qualified by the
                           other attributes) occurs anywhere
                           in the record.

            Note: A target might choose to support 'Anywhere' only in
            combination with specific (non-Use) attributes. For example, a
            target might support 'Anywhere' only in combination with the
            Relation attribute 'AlwaysMatches' (see below), to locate all
            records in a database.

       Notes on relationship of Any and Anywhere:
        (1) A target may support Any but not Anywhere, or vice versa, or
            both.  However, if a target supports both, then it should
            exclude 'Anywhere' from the list of Use attributes
            corresponding to 'Any' (if it does not do so, then the set
            of records located by 'Any' will be a superset of those
            located by 'Anywhere').
        (2) A distinction between the two attributes may be informally
            expressed as follows: 'anywhere' might result in more
            expensive searching than 'any'; if the target (and origin)
            support both 'any' and 'anywhere', if the origin uses 'Any'
            (rather than 'Anywhere') it is asking the target to locate
            the term only if it can do so relatively inexpensively.

Author-name          1003  A personal or corporate author, 100, 110, 111, 400
                           or a conference or meeting      410, 411, 700, 710,
                           name.  (No subject name         711, 800, 810, 811
                           headings are included.)

Author-name-and-     1000  A personal or corporate author, 100/2XX, 110/2XX,
title                      or a conference or meeting      111/2XX, subfields
                           name, and the title of the      $a & $t in
                           item.  (No subject name         following: 400,410,
                           headings are included.)  The    411, 700, 710, 711,
                           syntax of the name-title        800, 810, 811
                           combination is up to the
                           target, unless used with the
                           Structure attribute Key (see

Author-name-         1005  An organization or a group      110, 410, 710, 810
corporate                  of persons that is identified
                           by a particular name. (Differs
                           from attribute "name-corporate
                           (2)" in that corporate name
                           subject headings are not

Author-name-         1006  A meeting of individuals or     111, 411, 711, 811
conference                 representatives of various
                           bodies for the purpose of
                           discussing topics of common
                           interest. (Differs from
                           attribute "name-conference
                           (3)" in that conference name
                           subject headings are not

Author-name-personal 1004  A person's real name,           100, 400, 700, 800
                           pseudonym, title of nobility
                           nickname, or initials.
                           (Differs from attribute
                           "name-personal (1)" in that
                           personal name subject headings
                           are not included.)

Author-Title-Subject 1036  An author or a title or a        1XX, 2XX, 4XX,
                           subject.                         6XX, 7XX, 8XX

            Note: When the Use attribute is Author-name-and-title (1000)
            the term contains both an author name and a title.  When the
            Use attribute is Author-Title-Subject (1036), the term
            contains an author name or a title or a subject.

Body of text         1010  Used in full-text searching to
                           indicate that the term is to
                           be searched only in that
                           portion of the record that the
                           target considers the body of
                           the text, as opposed to some
                           other discriminated part such
                           as a headline, title, or

Classification-Bliss   15  A classification number from
                           the Bliss Classification,
                           developed by Henry Evelyn

Classification-Dewey   13  A classification number from    082
                           the Dewey Decimal
                           Classification, developed by
                           Melvyl Dewey.

Classification-        50  A classification number         086
government-publication     assigned to a government
                           document by a government
                           agency at any level (e.g.,
                           state, national,

Classification-LC      16  A classification number from    050
                           the US Library of Congress

Classification-local   20  A local classification
                           number from a system not
                           specified elsewhere in this
                           list of attributes.

Classification-NAL     18  A classification number from    070
                           the US National Agriculture
                           Library Classification.

Classification-NLM     17  A classification number from    060
                           the US National Library of
                           Medicine Classification.

Classification-MOS     19  A classification number from
                           Mathematics Subject
                           Classification, compiled
                           in the Editorial Offices of
                           Mathematical Reviews and
                           Zentralblatt fur Mathematik.

Classification-UDC     14  A classification number from    080
                           Universal Decimal
                           Classification, a system based
                           on the Dewey Decimal

Code-bib-level       1021  A one-character alphabetic       Leader/07
                           code indicating the
                           bibliographic level such as
                           monograph, serial or collection
                           of the record.

Code-geographic-area   55  A code that indicates the       043
                           geographic area(s) that appear
                           or are implied in the headings
                           assigned to the item during

Code-geographic-     1022  A code that represents the      052
class                      geographic area and if
                           applicable the geographic
                           subarea covered by an item.
                           The codes are derived from
                           the LC Classification-Class G
                           and the expanded Cutter number

Code-institution       56  An authoritative-agency         040, 852$a
                           symbol for an institution
                           that is the source of the
                           record or the holding
                           location.  The code space is
                           defined by the target.

Code-language          54  A code that indicates the       008/35-37, 041
                           language of the item.
                           The codes are defined by the

Code-map-scale       1024  Coded form of cartographic      034
                           mathematical data, including
                           scale, projection and/or
                           coordinates related to the

Code-microform-        61  The code specifying the         007/11
generation                 generation of a microform.

Code-record-type     1001  A code that specifies the       Leader/06
                           characteristics and defines
                           the components of the record.
                           The codes are target-specific.

Concept-reference    1015  Used within Z39.50-1988;
                           included here for historical
                           reasons but its use is

Concept-text         1014  Used within Z39.50-1988;
                           included here for historical
                           reasons but its use is

Content-type         1034  The type of materials           derived value
                           contained in the item or        from 008/24-27
                           publication.  For example:
                           review, catalog, encyclopedia,

Control number-BNB     10  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           British National Bibliography.

Control number-BNF     11  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           Bibliotheque Nationale Francais.

Control number-DB      52  Character string that uniquely  015
                           identifies a record in the
                           Deutsche Bibliothek.

Control number-LC       9  Character string that uniquely  010, 011
                           identifies a record in the
                           Library of Congress database.

Control number-local   12  Character string that uniquely  001, 035
                           identifies a record in a local
                           system (i.e., any system that
                           is not one of the four listed

Date                   30  The point of time at which      005, 008/00-05,
                           a transaction or event          008/07-10, 260$c,
                           takes place.                    008/11-14, 033,etc.

Date-publication       31  The date (usually year) in      008/07-10, 260$c
                           which a document is published.  046, 533$d

Date-acquisition       32  The date when a document was    541$d

Date/time added to   1011  The date and time that a        008/00-05
database                   record was added to the

Date/time last       1012  The date and time a record      005
modified                   was last updated.

Identifier--         1013  Used in full-text searching
authority/format           to indicate to the target
                           system the format of the
                           document that should be
                           returned to the originating
                           system.  The attribute carries
                           not only the format code, but
                           also the authority (e.g.,
                           system) that assigned that

Identifier-CODEN       60  A six-character, unique,        030
                           alphanumeric code assigned
                           to serial and monographic
                           publications by the CODEN
                           section of the Chemical
                           Abstracts Service.

Identifier-document  1032  An identifier or Doc-ID,  
                           assigned by a server, that 
                           uniquely identifies a document 
                           on that server. May or may 
                           not be persistent. May be, 
                           for example, a URL.
            Note: this definition was modified October 1997.

Identifier-ISBN         7  International Standard Book     020
                           Number -- internationally
                           agreed upon number that
                           identifies a book uniquely.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO Z39.21 and
                           ISO 2108.

Identifier-ISSN         8  International Standard Serial   022, 4XX$x,
                           Number -- internationally       7XX$x
                           agreed upon number that
                           identifies a serial uniquely.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO z39.9 and
                           ISO 3297.

Identifier-legal-      49  The copyright registration      017
deposit                    number that is assigned to
                           an item when the item is
                           deposited for copyright.

Identifier-local-call  53  Call number (e.g., shelf location)
                           assigned by a local system
                           (not a classification number).

Identifier-national-   48  Character string that uniquely  015
bibliography               identifies a record in a
                           national bibliography.

Identifier-publisher-  51  A formatted number assigned     028
for-music                  by a publisher to a sound
                           recording or to printed music.

Identifier-report    1027  A report number assigned to     027, 088
                           the item. This number could be
                           the STRN (Standard Technical
                           Report Number) or another
                           report number.
                           Cf. ANSI/NISO Z39.23 and
                           ISO 10444.

Identifier-standard  1007  Standard numbers such as ISBN,  010, 011, 015, 017,
                           ISSN, music publishers          018, 020, 022, 023,
                           numbers, CODEN, etc., that      024, 025, 027, 028,
                           are indexed together in many    030, 035, 037
                           online public-access catalogs.

Identifier-stock     1028  A stock number that could be    037
                           used for ordering the item.

Identifier-thematic  1030  The numeric designation for a   $n in the following:
                           part/section of a work such as  130, 240, 243, 630,
                           the serial, opus or thematic    700, 730
                           index number.

Indexed-by           1023  For serials, a publication      510
                           in which the serial has been
                           indexed and/or abstracted.

Material-type        1031  A free-form string, more        derived value from
                           specific than the one-letter    Leader/06-07, 007,
                           code in Leader/06, that         008, and 502
                           describes the material type
                           of the item, e.g., cassette,
                           kit, computer database,
                           computer file.

Music-key            1025  A statement of the key in       $r in the following:
                           which the music is written.     130, 240, 243, 630,
                                                           700, 730

Name                 1002  The name of a person, corporate 100, 110, 111, 400,
                           body, conference, or meeting.   410, 411, 600, 610,
                           (Subject name headings are      611, 700, 710, 711,
                           included.)                      800, 810, 811

Name-and-title         57  The name of a person, corporate 100/2XX, 110/2XX,
                           body, conference, or meeting,   111/2XX, subfields
                           and the title of an item.       $a & $t in
                           (Subject name headings are      following: 400,410,
                           included.)  The syntax of the   411, 600, 610, 611,
                           name-title combination is up    700, 710, 711, 800,
                           to the target, unless used      810, 811
                           with the Structure attribute
                           Key (see below).

Name-corporate          2  An organization or a group      110, 410, 610, 710,
                           of persons that is identified   810
                           by a particular name. (Subject
                           name headings are included.)

Name-conference         3  A meeting of individuals or     111, 411, 611, 711
                           representatives of various      811
                           bodies for the purpose of
                           discussing topics of common
                           interest.  (Subject name
                           headings are included.)

Name-editor          1020  A person who prepared for       100 $a or 700 $a when
                           publication an item that is     the corresponding $e
                           not his or her own.             contains value 'ed.'

Name-geographic        58  Name of a country,              651
                           jurisdiction, region, or
                           geographic feature.

Name-geographic-place- 59  City or town where an item      008/15-17, 260$a
publication                was published.

Name-personal           1  A person's real name,           100, 400, 600, 700,
                           pseudonym, title of nobility    800
                           nickname, or initials.

Name-publisher       1018  The organization responsible    260$b
                           for the publication of the

Note                   63  A concise statement in which    5XX
                           such information as extended
                           physical description,
                           relationship to other works,
                           or contents may be recorded.

Record-source        1019  The USMARC code or name of the  008/39, 040
                           organization(s) that created
                           the original record, assigned
                           the USMARC content designation
                           and transcribed the record into
                           machine-readable form, or
                           modified the existing USMARC
                           record; the cataloging source.

Server-choice        1017  The target substitutes one or
                           more access points.  The origin
                           leaves the choice to the target.

       Notes on relationship of Any and Server-choice:
        (1) When the origin uses 'Server-choice' it is asking the target
            to select one or more access points, and to use its best
            judgment in making that selection.  When 'Any' is used,
            there is no selection process involved; the target is to
            apply all of the (appropriate) supported Use attributes.
            The origin is asking the target to make a choice of access
        (2) The target might support 'Any' and not 'Server-choice', or
            vice versa, or both.  If the target supports both, when the
            origin uses 'Server-choice', the target might choose 'Any';
            however, it might choose any other Use attribute.

Subject                21  The primary topic on which a    600, 610, 611, 630,
                           work is focused.                650, 651, 653, 654,
                                                           655, 656, 657, 69X

Subject-BDI            23  Subject headings from
                           Bibliotek Dokumentasjon
                           Informasjon -- a controlled
                           subject vocabulary used and
                           maintained by the five Nordic
                           countries (Denmark, Finland,
                           Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

Subject-INSPEC         24  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Information Services for the    611i2, 630i2,
                           Physics and Engineering         650i2, 651i2
                           Communities -- the Information
                           Services Division of the
                           Institution of Electrical

Subject-LC             27  Subject headings from           600i0, 610i0,
                           US Library of Congress          611i0, 630i0,
                           Subject Headings.               650i0, 651i0

Subject-LC-          1008  Subject headings, for use       600i1, 610i1,
children's                 with children's literature,     611i1, 630i1,
                           that conform to the             650i1, 651i1
                           formulation guidelines in
                           the "AC Subject Headings"
                           section of the Library of
                           Congress Subject Headings.

Subject-local          29  Subjects headings defined

Subject-MESH           25  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Medical Subject Headings --     611i2, 630i2,
                           maintained by the US National   650i2, 651i2
                           Library of Medicine.

Subject-name-        1009  A person's real name,           600
personal                   pseudonym, title of nobility
                           nickname, or initials that
                           appears in a subject heading.

Subject-PA             26  Subject headings from           600i2, 610i2,
                           Thesaurus of Psychological      611i2, 630i2,
                           Index Terms -- maintained       650i2, 651i2
                           by the Retrieval Services Unit
                           of the American Psychological

Subject-PRECIS         45  Subject headings from
                           PREserved Context Index
                           System -- a string of indexing
                           terms set down in a prescribed
                           order, each term being preceded
                           by a manipulation code which
                           governs the production of
                           pre-coordinated subject index
                           entries under selected terms --
                           maintained by the British

Subject-RAMEAU         22  Subject headings from
                           Repertoire d'authorite de
                           matieres encyclopedique
                           unifie -- maintained by the
                           Bibliotheque Nationale

Subject-RSWK           46  Subject headings from
                           Regeln fur den
                           Schlagwortkatalog --
                           maintained by the Deutsches

Subject-RVM            28  Subject headings from           600i6, 610i6,
                           Repertoire des vedettes-        611i6, 630i6,
                           matiere -- maintained by the    650i6, 651i6
                           Bibliotheque de l'Universite
                           de Laval.

Subject-subdivision    47  An extension to a subject       6XX$x, 6XX$y,
                           heading indicating the form,    6XX$z
                           place, period of time treated,
                           or aspect of the subject

Title                   4  A word, phrase, character,      130, 21X-24X, 440,
                           or group of characters,         490, 730, 740, 830,
                           normally appearing in an item,  840, subfield $t
                           that names the item or the      in the following:
                           work contained in it.           400, 410, 410, 600,
                                                           610, 611, 700, 710,
                                                           711, 800, 810, 811

Title-abbreviated      43  Shortened form of the title;    210, 211 (obs.),
                           either assigned by national     246
                           centers under the auspices of
                           the International Serials Data
                           System, or a title (such as an
                           acronym) that is popularly
                           associated with the item.

Title-added-title-page 37  A title on a title page         246i5
                           preceding or following the
                           title page chosen as the basis
                           for the description of the
                           item.  It may be more general
                           (e.g., a series title page),
                           or equally general (e.g., a
                           title page in another

Title-caption          38  A title given at the beginning  246i6
                           of the first page of the text.

Title-collective       34  A title proper that is an       243
                           inclusive title for an item
                           containing several works.

Title-cover            36  The title printed on the        246i4
                           cover of an item as issued.

Title-expanded         44  An expanded (or augmented)      214 (obs.), 246
                           title has been enlarged with
                           descriptive words by the
                           cataloger to provide
                           additional indexing and
                           searching capabilities.

Title-former           42  A former title or title         247, 780
                           variation when one
                           bibliographic record
                           represents all issues of
                           a serial that has changed

Title-host-item      1033  The title of the item            773$t
                           containing the part
                           described in the record, for
                           example, a journal title
                           when the record describes an
                           article in the journal.

Title-key              33  The unique name assigned to     222
                           a serial by the International
                           Serials Data System (ISDS).

Title-other-variant    41  A variation from the title      212 (obs.), 246i3,
                           page title appearing elsewhere  247, 740
                           in the item (e.g., a variant
                           cover title, caption title,
                           running title, or title from
                           another volume) or in another

Title-parallel         35  The title proper in another     246i1
                           language and/or script.

Title-related-       1026  Serial titles related to this   247, 780, 785
periodical                 item, either the immediate
                           predecessor or the immediate

Title-running          39  A title, or abbreviated title,  246i7
                           that is repeated at the head
                           or foot of each page or leaf.

Title-series            5  Collective title applying to    440, 490, 830, 840,
                           a group of separate, but        subfield $t in the
                           related, items.                 following: 400,410,
                                                           411, 800, 810, 811

Title-spine            40  A title appearing on the        246i8
                           spine of an item.

Title-uniform           6  The particular title by which   130, 240, 730,
                           a work is to be identified      subfield $t in the
                           for cataloging purposes.        following: 700,710,

See also the Bib-1 Use Attributes -- Extensions